Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT/U) berhubungan dengan daya ingat anak usia 5-6 tahun

Eny Palupi, Ahmad Sulaeman, Angelika Ploeger


Background: Lack of nutrient during the early-life might impair the brain development which is not able to be paid-off on later life.  

Objectives: To explore the potential relationship between a series of nutritional status (weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age) and a series of brain development indicators (memory, learning, attention, IQ and EQ).

Methods: Brain development indicators were assessed using Projective Multi-phase Orientation method. This study was conducted among 118 boys and 103 girls age 5-6 years old from 5 different rural and urban areas in Bogor, West-Java, Indonesia, between November 2012 to December 2013. Non-parametric test and Principal Component Analysis were applied for data analysis.

Results: There was a positive relationship (p<0.05) between BMI and memory ability but failed to reveal any significant differences between the cognitive abilities assessed and two other child growth indicators (weight-for-age and height-for-age). A Mann-Whitney U test showed that children with BMI-for-age z score ≥ -3 (n=170) had significantly (p<0.05) better memory’s ability (50.49±11.92) compared to children with BMI-for-age z score < -3 (n=51) (46.65±11.13).

Conclusions: BMI-for-age was potential as a predictor for brain development of children age 5-6 years old. Correlation between the balance proportion of weight and height and the optimal hippocampal development in early-life stage was suspected as the reason behind this evidence.

Latar belakang: Kekurangan gizi pada masa awal kehidupan diprediksi mampu mempengaruhi perkembangan otak yang tidak mungkin untuk diperbaiki pada tahap perkembangan berikutnya.

Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis potensi hubungan antara status gizi (BB/U, TB/, dan IMT/U) dengan beberapa indikator perkembangan otak (memory, learning, attention, intelligence quotient (IQ), dan emotional quotient (EQ)).

Metode: Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional study yang melibatkan 118 anak laki-laki dan 103 anak perempuan berusia 5 sampai 6 tahun, yang berasal dari 5 daerah yang berbeda di Bogor, Jawa Barat, Indonesia, pada bulan November 2012 hingga Desember 2013. Status gizi diukur menggunakan metode pengukuran antropometri. Beberapa indikator perkembangan otak diukur menggunakan metode projective multi-phase orientation. Data survei dianalisa dengan uji non-parametrik (Mann withney U dan Kruskal Wallis) menggunakan SPSS 16.0 dan principal component analysis menggunakan Unscrambler 10.2.

Hasil: Penelitian menunjukkan terdapat hubungan positif yang signifikan (p<0,05) antara IMT/U dan daya ingat, akan tetapi tidak berhasil mengungkapkan hubungan antara beberapa indikator perkembangan otak yang dianalisa dengan parameter status gizi yang lain (BB/U dan TB/U). Uji Mann-Whitney U menunjukkan bahwa anak dengan nilai z skor IMT/U ≥ -3 (n=170) secara signifikan (p<0,05) memiliki daya ingat yang lebih baik (50,49±11,92) dibandingkan dengan anak yang nilai z skor IMT/U < -3 (n=51) (46,65±11,13).

Kesimpulan: IMT/U berpotensi sebagai prediktor awal terhadap kualitas perkembangan otak pada anak usia 5 sampai 6 tahun. Hubungan antara proporsi keseimbangan tinggi dan berat badan terhadap perkembangan hippocampus diprediksi menjadi alasan dibalik penemuan ini.

KATA KUNCI: anak usia 5-6 tahun, kemampuan kognitif, status gizi


children 5-6 years; cognitive performance; nutritional status

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