Does the consumption of local snacks on sale in the schools cause adolescent obesity? A case study in the secondary vocational schools

Muhammad Nur Hasan Syah, Rani Dian Miranti, Noerfitri Noerfitri, Andi Imam Arundhana Thahir



Latar belakang: Prevalensi kelebihan berat badan dan obesitas pada remaja (13 - 15 tahun) meningkat secara signifi kan dari 7,3% pada 2013 menjadi 13,5% pada 2018. Ketersediaan restoran cepat saji yang semakin banyak, baik lokal maupun komersial, di sekitar sekolah semakin meningkatkan jumlah anak remaja usia sekolah yang terpapar makanan tidak sehat, terlebih bagi mereka yang tinggal di daerah perkotaan.
Tujuan: Penelitian ini menguji dampak camilan lokal yang tersedia di sekolah terhadap kejadian obesitas pada remaja.
Metode: Penelitian Ini menggunakan disain cross-sectional yang dilakukan di lima Sekolah Menengah Kejuruan (SMK) di Bekasi, Indonesia. Sebanyak 225 siswa berusia 16-18 tahun diamati status gizi dan konsumsi makanan ringan mereka. Indeks massa tubuh menurut usia (IMT/U) digunakan untuk menentukan status obesitas remaja. Diklasifi kasikan sebagai obesitas apabila nilai z score > 2SD sesuai dengan usia dan jenis kelamin mereka, menggunakan grafi k referensi WHO 2007. Siswa ditanya tentang konsumsi makanan mereka menggunakan kuesioner frekuensi makan (FFQ) semi kuantitatif. Odds ratio (OR) dihitung untuk setiap jenis makanan ringan dan nilai p<0,05 sebagai nilai signifi kan secara statistik.
Hasil: Temuan penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa 32,4% siswa mengalami obesitas. Konsumsi makanan ringan lokal yang terkait dengan obesitas termasuk makanan berlemak (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.68 - 7.01; p = 0.19), makanan manis (1OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.70 – 2.35)), dan makanan asin (OR, 1,04; 95% CI, 0,40 - 2,71; p = 0,92). Tiga makanan dan minuman lokal teratas yang dikonsumsi oleh para siswa adalah Cireng (makanan goreng lokal yang terbuat dari tepung), teh, dan pizza (masing-masing dengan frekuensi 0,561, 0,429, 0,245 /hari).
Kesimpulan: Konsumsi makanan ringan lokal yang dijual di SMK di Kota Bekasi tidak memiliki hubungan yang signifi kan terhadapt kejadian obesitas.

KATA KUNCI: kebiasaan mengemil; obesitas pada remaja; konsumsi makanan

Background: Prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents (13 – 15 years) significantly increased from 7.3% in 2013 to 13.5% in 2018. The availability of many fast-food restaurants, both local and commercial, nearby the school increases the number of young people exposed to unhealthy food, especially those living in urban areas.
Objectives: This study examined the impact of local unhealthy snacks available in the school on adolescent obesity.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the fi ve Secondary Vocational School in Bekasi, Indonesia. A total of 225 students aged 16-18 years were observed for their nutritional status and snack consumption. Body mass index for age indices was used to determine the obesity status of adolescents, classifi ed as obese (>2SD) with respect to their age and sex using 2007 WHO reference charts. Students were asked about their food consumption using a semi-quantitative questionnaire. Odds ratios (ORs) was calculated for each type of snacks and p<0.05 was considered statistically signifi cant.
Results: Finding of this study shows that 32.4% of students were obese. The consumption of local snacks associated with obesity included fatty food (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 0.68–7.01; p=0.19), sweet food (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 3.00 – 16.25; p<0.001), and salty food (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.40 – 2.71; p=0.92). The top three of local foods and beverages consumed by the students were Cireng (a local fried food made from starch), tea, and pizza (with frequency/day 0.561, 0.429, 0.245, respectively). Conclusion: Local snacks on sale in the vocational schools in Bekasi City was not signifi cant associated with obesity.

KEYWORDS: snacking behavior; obesity in adolescence; food consumption


kebiasaan mengemil; obesitas pada remaja; konsumsi makanan; snacking behavior; obesity in adolescence; food consumption

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