Association of central obesity and smoking with HDL level among Indonesian peoples (18 – 59 years)

Mukhlidah Hanun Siregar, Fatmah Fatmah, Ratu Ayu Dewi Sartika

Abstract


ABSTRAK


Latar Belakang : High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) adalah bagian dari profil lipid yang dianjurkan berada pada level diatas 40 mg/dl. HDL rendah menjadi salah satu kriteria sindrom metabolik. Rendahnya HDL dalam darah akan menyebabkan terjadinya aterosklerosis dan berdampak pada peningkatan risiko
penyakit cardiovaskular. Beberapa penelitian menemukan bahwa obesitas sentral, merokok, aktivitas fisik, dan asupan makanan memiliki peran dalam menurunkan kadar HDL.

Tujuan : Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui faktor utama yang berhubungan dengan kadar HDL pada masyarakat Indonesia dengan range usia 18-59 tahun.

Metode : Desain penelitian menggunakan desain cross sectional. Data penelitian diperoleh dari Riset Kesehatan Dasar tahun 2013. Total responden setelah dilakukan manajemen data sebanyak 21.055 orang. Faktor yang dianalisis adalah usia, jenis kelamin, status menikah, aktivitas fisik, merokok, obesitas sentral, konsumsi buah dan sayur, konsumsi kopi dan konsumsi makanan berlemak. Data dianalisis dengan uji hipotesis multiple regression logistic for the prediction model.

Hasil : Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebesar 26,2% penduduk Indonesia berusia 18-59 tahun memiliki kadar HDL ≤40 mg/dl. Setelah dianalisis melalui 4 model, ditemukan bahwa obesitas sentral, merokok, konsumsi makanan berlemak, status menikah, dan jenis kelamin memiliki hubungan secara signifikan dengan kadar HDL (berurutan berdasarkan nilai OR).

Kesimpulan : Obesitas sentral dan merokok menjadi faktor utama terhadap kadar HDL abnormal setelah dikontrol dengan faktor lain yang berhubungan, dengan nilai OR 1.948 (1.740-2.182; p-value<0.0001) dan 1.284 (1.127-1.462; p-value<0.0001). Obesitas sentral merupakan faktor utama yang berhubungan dengan penurunan kadar HDL. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini menyarankan untuk menjaga lingkar pinggang selalu berada pada batas <80 cm untuk perempuan dan <90 untuk laki-laki dengan melaksanakan pedoman gizi seimbang (terutama menurunkan konsumsi makanan berlemak dan meningkatkan aktivitas fisik), menjauhi merokok, khususnya pada perempuan menikah.

KATA KUNCI: gizi seimbang; kadar HDL; merokok; obesitas sentral

 

ABSTRACT


Background: High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) is a part of the lipid profile and it is recommended to be above 40 mg/dl. Low HDL is one of the criteria of metabolic syndrome. Low HDL in the blood will cause atherosclerosis and affect the increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Some research found that central
obesity, smoking, physical activity, and dietary intake have a role in lowering HDL levels.

Objectives: The purpose of this research is to know the main factors associate to HDL levels in Indonesian society with range age 18-59 years.

Methods: Design research was using cross sectional design. Research data obtained from Basic Health Research in 2013. Total respondents after doing data management were 21.055 people. The analyzed factors are age, gender, married status, physical activity, smoking, central obesity, dietary of fruit and vegetable, coffee consumption and dietary of fatty foods. The data was analyzed by multiple regression logistic for the prediction model.

Result: The results showed that 26.2% of the Indonesian population aged 18-59 years had HDL levels ≤ 40 mg/dl. After being analyzed through 4 models, it was found that central obesity, smoking, dietary of fatty foods, married status, and sex associated significantly with HDL levels (sequentially based on OR value). Central obesity and smoking are becoming a major factor related with abnormal HDL levels after adjustment with other significant associated factors, with OR 1.948 (1.740-2.182; p-value < 0.0001) and 1.284 (1.127-1.462; p-value < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Central obesity was a major factor associated with decreasing levels of HDL. Therefore, this research suggested to keep the waist circumference always under 80 cm for women and 90 for men, by applied the balanced nutritional guidelines (decreasing of fatty foods and increasing physical activity), avoiding smoking, especially for married women.

KEYWORDS: balance nutrition; central obesity; HDL levels; smoking


Keywords


gizi seimbang; kadar HDL; merokok; obesitas sentral; balance nutrition; central obesity; HDL levels; smoking

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2020.8(3).101-108

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