Anthropometric characteristics and dietery intake of swimming athletes with disabilities before the competition

Mirza Hapsari Sakti Titis Penggalih, Mustika C N Dewinta, Kurnia M Solichah, Diana Pratiwi, Ibtidau Niamilah, Almira Nadila, Marina D Kusumawati, Christofer M Siagian, Rora Asyulia

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Kajian status gizi pada atlet renang merupakan hal yang fundamental karena berperan dalam menunjang performa. Sementara itu atlet difabel memiliki beberapa karakteristik yang berbeda dengan atlet biasa, sehingga perlu memperoleh perhatian tersendiri. Studi mengenai kajian status gizi pada atlet difabel di Indonesia belum pernah dilakukan, sehingga penulis mencoba mengkaji status gizi atlet difabel cabang olahraga renang dari aspek antropometri serta asupan makanan dan cairan.

Tujuan: Mengkaji status gizi atlet renang difabel dari segi antropometri serta asupan makanan dan cairan.

Metode: Subjek yang terlibat adalah atlet difabel renang sebanyak 18 orang (16 laki-laki dan 2 perempuan) berusia 15-34 tahun yang sedang menjalani masa karantina untuk persiapan ASEAN Para Games 2017 di Malaysia. Pengukuran antropometri meliputi komponen berat badan, tinggi badan, persen lemak, dan somatotype. Penentuan status gizi berdasarkan Indeks Massa Tubuh (IMT) dan Lingkar Lengan Atas (LLA). Kajian asupan makanan dan cairan dilakukan dengan wawancara recall 24-hours yang menanyakan asupan makan dalam satu hari terakhir dan Semi Quantitative Fluid Frequency yang menanyakan asupan cairan selama satu minggu terakhir. Seluruh data dianalisa secara deskriptif serta ditampilkan dalam bentuk rata-rata dan nilai simpang baku (SD).

Hasil: Sebanyak 11 dari 18 atlet memiliki status gizi normal, sementara sisanya memiliki status gizi berlebih atau overweight. Hasil pengukuran persen lemak adalah 16% pada atlet laki-laki dan 29% pada atlet perempuan, lebih tinggi dari persen lemak atlet renang profesional (13% dan 26%). Somatotype atlet renang difabel didominasi kategori ectomorphic mesomorph. Asupan energi zat gizi makro dan mikro masih tergolong kurang dengan pemenuhan di bawah 80% dari kebutuhan yang direkomendasikan.

Kesimpulan: Beberapa aspek antropometri belum sesuai dengan standar atlet profesional, dan pemenuhan asupan makanan serta cairan belum optimal sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Diperlukan pemberian diet dan latihan yang tepat untuk mencapai perawakan fisik terbaik dan meningkatkan asupan makanan.

KATA KUNCI : difabel, renang, antropometri, asupan makan, status gizi

ABSTRACT

Backgrounds: In the strategy of fostering athletes’ performance, examining their nutrition status is essential as the guide to plan the proper diet and physical training. However, physical impairment in disabled athletes gives extra challenge in assessing the nutrition profile, particularly on anthropometric measurements.

Objectives: To identify the nutrition status based on anthropometry value, food and fluid intake of disabled swimming athletes.

Methods: Descriptive quantitative design was used in this study. Subjects participated in the study were 18 disabled swimmers in national training camp for 2017 ASEAN Para-Games. Anthropometry measurement consists of body weight, height, %body fat, and somatotype. Nutrition status was identified according to BMI and MUAC. Food and fluid intake were assessed using 24-hour dietary recall and Semi Quantitative Fluid Frequency Questionnaire. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using SPSS software version 16, and the result was presented in mean and deviation standard.

Results: Nutrition status of athletes based on BMI and MUAC illustrated that 11 (61%) athletes had normal nutrition status, 6 (34%) were overweight, and 1 (5%) was obese. Body fat percentage for female and male athletes were 29% and 16%, respectively, higher than recommended value (26.6% and 13%) Endomorphic mesomoprh was dominant as the somatotype value of athletes, contradicted to standard value in professional swimmer (balanced mesomoprh or central). Dietary intake of athletes was found to be inadequate with %intake for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate were 55%, 66%, 79%, and 49%. The inadequate fluid intake was also found with the intake was 3222 ml/day.

Conclusions: The results indicate that several anthropometry values such as %body fat and somatotype of disabled swimming athletes in this study were still differ from anthropometry standard of professional swimmers. Total energy, macro nutrients, micro nutrients, and fluid intake were inadequate compared to dietary recommendation.

KEYWORDS: disabled athlete, swimming, anthropometry, dietary intake, nutrition status


Keywords


difabel, renang, antropometri, asupan makan, status gizi; disabled athlete, swimming, anthropometry, dietary intake, nutrition status

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2018.6(1).33-41

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