Antidiabetic effect of Centella asiatica extract (whole plant) in streptozotocin nicotinamide-induced diabetic rats

Arwin Muhlishoh, Brian Wasita, Adi Magna Patriado Nuhriawangsa

Abstract


ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Pegagan (Centella asiatica) telah digunakan untuk pengobatan diabetes mellitus. Namun dosis efek anti diabetes ini belum diteliti.

Tujuan: Untuk menguji pengaruh variasi dosis ekstrak pegagan (seluruh bagian tanaman) terhadap kadar gula darah, asupan makanan, dan berat badan pada tikus model diabetes mellitus yang diinduksi Streptozotocin Nicotinamide.

Metode: Tiga puluh enam tikus Wistar jantan dibagi menjadi enam kelompok perlakuan berbeda: kontrol negatif, kontrol positif, kontrol obat (metformin 45 mg/KgBB/hari), ekstrak pegagan 300 mg/KgBB/hari, 600 mg/KgBB/hari, 1200 mg / KgBB / hari. Pemberian ekstrak pegagan (seluruh bagian tanaman) dan metformin dilakukan selama 28 hari. Kadar gula darah dianalisis menggunakan Glucose Oxidase Phenol Aminoantipyrina Peroxidase (GOD-PAP) sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan. Berat badan dan asupan makanan diukur setiap satu minggu. Data dianalisis menggunakan One Way ANOVA dengan tingkat kepercayaan 95%.

Hasil: Pemberian variasi dosis ekstrak pegagan dan metformin secara signifikan menurunkan kadar gula darah, meningkatkan berat badan dan memperbaiki asupan makanan (p = 0,00). Kadar gula darah dan asupan makanan pada kelompok ekstrak pegagan (seluruh bagian tanaman) dosis tinggi (1200 mg / KgBB / hari) lebih baik dibanding kelompok dosis rendah (300 mg / KgBB / hari) dan kelompok dosis sedang (600 mg / hari), dan memiliki efek yang sama dengan tikus yang diobati dengan metformin 45 mg / KgBB / hari.

Kesimpulan: Dosis tinggi ekstrak pegagan (1200 mg/KgBB/hari) memiliki efek anti-diabetes yang lebih baik dibanding dosis lain, dan memiliki efek yang sama dengan kontrol obat.

KATA KUNCI: gula darah, diabetes, pegagan, Streptozotocin nicotinamide

ABSTRACT

Background: Centella asiatica has been used for healing diabetes mellitus. The dosage of this anti diabetic effect was yet to be explored.

Objectives: To examine the effect of the variation in the dosage of C. asiatica extract (whole plant) on blood glucose levels, food intake, and body weight in Streptozotocin Nicotinamide induced diabetic rats.

Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rat were divided into six different groups of treatments: negative control, positive control, medication control (metformin 45 mg/KgBW/day), extract of C. asiatica 300 mg/KgBW/day, 600 mg/KgBW/day, 1200 mg/KgBW/day. Treatments of C. asiatica extract (whole plant) and metformin was done for 28 days. Blood glucose was analyzed using the Glucose Oxidase Phenol Aminoantipyrina Peroxidase (GOD-PAP) before and after treatment. Body weight and food intake were measured every one week. The data were analyzed using One Way ANOVA with 95% confidence level.

Results: The administration of the variation in the dosage of C. asiatica extract and metformin significantly decrease blood glucose levels, increase body weight and improve food intake (p =0.00). Blood glucose level and food intake among high dosage of C. asiatica extract (whole plant) group (1200 mg/KgBW/day) is better than the low dosage group (300 mg/KgBW/day) and moderate dosage group (600 mg/KgBW/ day), and have the same effect with the rats treated with metformin 45 mg/KgBW/day.

Conclusion: High dosage of C. asiatica extract (1200 mg/KgBW/day) had a better anti-diabetic effe than other dosages, and had the same effect with the medication control.

KEYWORDS: blood glucose, Centella asiatica, diabetes, nicotinamide, Streptozotocin


Keywords


gula darah; diabetes; pegagan; Streptozotocin nicotinamide; blood glucose; Centella asiatica; diabetes; nicotinamide; Streptozotocin

Full Text:

PDF

References


International Diabetes Federation (IDF). IDF Diabetes Atlas. 6th ed. Brussels, Belgium: International Diabetes Federation; 2014.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Riset Kesehatan Dasar RISKESDAS 2013. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2013.

Montane J, Cadavez L, Novials A. Stress and the inflammatory process: A major cause of pancreatic cell death in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, Metab Syndr Obes Targets Ther. 2014;7(February):25–34.

American Diabetes Association (ADA). Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2015; 38: 8–16.

Tjokroprawiro, A. Ilmu Penyakit Dalam. Surabaya: Airlangga University Press; 2007.

American Diabetes Association. “Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus”. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37(1): s81-s90.

Anuradha R, Saraswati M, Kumar KG, Rani SH. Apoptosis of beta cells in diabetes mellitus. DNA Cell Biol [Internet]. 2014;33(11):743–8.

Tomita T. Apoptosis in pancreatic β-islet cells in Type 2 diabetes. Bosn J basic Med Sci. 2016;16(3):162–79.

Bodmer M, Meier C, Krahenbuhl S, Jick SS, Meier CR. Long-term metformin use is associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. Diabetes Care [Internet]. 2010;33(6):1304–8.

de Jager J, Kooy A, Lehert P, Wulffelé MG, van der Kolk J, Bets D, et al. Long term treatment with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes and risk of vitamin B-12 deficiency: randomised placebo controlled trial. Bmj. 2010;340:c2181–c2181.

Chong NJ, Aziz Z. A Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Centella asiatica for Improvement of the Signs and Symptoms of Chronic Venous Insufficiency. Evid Based Complement Altern Med [Internet]. 2013;2013:627182.

Kementerian Kesehatan RI. Vademekum Tanaman Obat Untuk Saitifikasi Jamu. Jilid 1. Jakarta: Kementerian Kesehatan RI; 2012.

Pumthong G, Nathason A, Tuseewan M, Pinthong P, Klangprapun S, Thepsuriyanon D, Kotta P. Complementary and Alternative Medicines for Diabetes Mellitus Management in Asean Countries. Complementary Therapi Medicines. 2015; vol. 23: 617-25.

Dewi RT, Maryani F. Antioxidant and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Compounds of Centella Asiatica. Procedia Chem [Internet]. 2015;17:147–52.

Mohamed NA, Abdou HM. The hypoglycemic and antioxidative effects of Centella asiatica against stz-induced diabetic disorders in rats. Int J Pharma Bio Sci. 2015;6(2):B621–33.

Subban R, Veerakumar A, Manimaran R, Hashim KM, Balachandran I. Two New Flavonoids from Centella asiatica (Linn.). Journal of Natural Medicines. 2008; 62 (3): 369-373.

James JT, Dubery IA. Pentacyclic Triterpenoids From The Medicinal Herb, Centella asiatica (L.). Molecules. 2009; 14 (10): 3922-3941.

Cao W, Li XQ, Zhang XN, Hou Y, Zeng AG, Xie YH, Wang SW. Madecassoside Suppresses LPS-induced TNF-alpha Production In Cardiomycytes Through Inhibition of ERK, p. 38, and NF-kappaB Activity. International Immunopharmacology. 2010; 10 (7): 723-729.

Mustafa RA, Abdul HA, Mohamed S, Bakar FA. Total Phenolic Compounds, Flavonoids, and Radical Scavenging Activity of 21 Selected Tropical Plants. Journal of Food Science. 2010; 75 (1): C28-35.

Chauhan PK, Pandey IP, Dhatwalia VK, Singh V. Antidiabetic effect of ethanolic and methanolic leaves extract of Centella asiatica on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Int J Pharm Bio Sci. 2010;1(1):1–6.

Ramachandran V, Saravanan R. Efficacy of Asiatic acid, a pentacyclic triterpene on attenuating the key enzymes activities of carbohydrate metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Phytomedicine [Internet]. 2013;20(3–4):230–6.

Gayathri V, Lekshmi P, Padmanabhan RN. Anti-diabetes activity of ethanol extract of Centella asiatica ( L .) Urban ( whole plant ) in Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats , isolation of an active fraction and toxicity evaluation of the extract. Int J Med Arom Plants. 2011;1(3):278–86.

Ramachandran V, Saravanan R. Glucose uptake through translocation and activation of GLUT4 in PI3K/Akt signaling pathway by asiatic acid in diabetic rats. Hum Exp Toxicol [Internet]. 2015;34(9):884–93.

Rahman S, Mostofa Jamal MAH, Parvin A, Mahfuz-Al-Mamun M, Rezuanul Islam M. Antidiabetic activity of centella asiatica (L.) urbana in alloxan induced type 1 diabetic model rats. J Bio-Science. 2011;19(1):23–7.

Ramachandran V, Saravanan R. Asiatic acid prevents lipid peroxidation and improves antioxidant status in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. J Funct Foods [Internet]. 2013;5(3):1077–87.

Nugroho AE, Lindawati NY, Herlyanti K, Widyastuti L, Pramono S. Anti-diabetic effect of a combination of andrographolide-enriched extract of andrographis paniculata (Burm f.) Nees and asiaticoside-enriched extract of Centella asiatica L. in high fructose-fat fed rats. Indian J Exp Biol. 2013;51(12):1101–8.

Ramachandran V, Saravanan R, Senthilraja P. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of asiatic acid in diabetic rats, role of HMG CoA: In vivo and in silico approaches. Phytomedicine [Internet]. 2014;21(3):225–32.

Pramono S, Ajiastuti D. Standardization of pegagan extract (Centella asiatica (L.) Urban) based on asiaticoside content using TLC- densitometric method. Majalah Farmasi Indonesia. 2004; 15( 3): 118-123

Nain P, Saini V, Sharma S, Nain J, Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Potential of Emblica Officinalis Gaertn. Leaves Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) Rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012; 142: 65-71.

Ortiz-Andrade RR, Sanchez-Salgado JC, Navarrete-Vazquez G, Webster SP, Binnie M, Garcia-Jimenez S, Leon-Rivera I, Cigarroa-Vazquez P, Villalobos-Molina R, Estrada-Soto S. Antidiabetic and toxicological evaluations of naringenin in normoglycaemic and NIDDM rat models and its implications on extra-pancreatic glucose regulation. Diabetes Obes. Metab. 2008; 10, 1097–1104.

Subiyono, Martsiningsih, MA., Gabrela D. Gambaran Kadar Glukosa Darah Metode GOD-PAP (Glucose Oxsidase – Peroxidase Aminoantypirin) Sampel Serum dan Plasma EDTA (Ethylen Diamin Terta Acetat). Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium. 2014; 5 (1): 45-48.

Sopiyudin DM. Statistik Untuk Kedokteran Dan Kesehatan. Jakarta : Salemba Medika; 2016.

Ghasemi A, Khalifi S, Jedi S. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced rat model of type 2 diabetes (Review). Acta Physiologica Hungaric. 2014; 101 (4): 408-420.

Masiello P. Animal models of type 2 diabetes with reduced pancreatic beta-cell mass. The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology. 2006; 38: 873-893.

Rahman M, Sayeed MS Bin, Haque A, Hassan M, Islam SMA. Phytochemical screening, Antioxidant, Anti-Alzheimer and Anti-diabetic activities of Centella asiatica. J Nat Prod Plant Resourse. 2012;2(4):504–11.

Kumar V, Abbas AK, Aster JC. Robbins Basic Pathology. 9th edition. hiladelphia: Elsevier Saunders; 2013.

Maulidiani, Abas F, Khatib A, Perumal V, Suppaiah V, Ismail A, et al. Metabolic alteration in obese diabetes rats upon treatment with Centella asiatica extract. J Ethnopharmacol [Internet]. 2016;180:60–9.

Liyana-Pathirana C, Shahidi F. Optimization of Extraction of Phenolic Compounds From Wheat Using Response Surface Methodology. Food Chemistry. 2005; 93 (1): 47-56.

Rodrigues S, Pinto GAS, Fernandes FAN. Optimization of Ultrasound Extraction Of Phenolic Compounds From Coconut (Cocos Nucifera) Shell Powder By Response Surface Methodology. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry. 2008; 15 (1): 95-100.

Kusumawati D. Bersahabat dengan Hewan Coba, Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Pres; 2004.

Hashim P, Sidek H, Helan MHM, Sabery A, Palanisamy UD, Ilham M. Triterpene composition and bioactivities of Centella asiatica. Molecules. 2011;16(2):1310–22.

Bhat GK, Sea TL, Olatinwo MO, Simorangkir D, Ford GD, Ford BD, Mann DR. Influence of a leptin deficiency on testicular morphology, germ cell apoptosis, and expression levels of apoptosis-related genes in the mouse. J Androl. 2006;27(2):302–310.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2018.6(1).14-22

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Nutrition and Dietetics (IJND) indexed by:

  


Lisensi Creative Commons
View My Stats