Environmental factors determin the occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis

Eppy Setiyowati, Khamida Khamida, Nurul Kamariyah, Budhi Setianto, Netty Mawardah Hatmanti


Background: Environment consisting of  residential density, house ventilation, room humidity, and lighting, is regarded as one of the factors causing the transmission of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The current research aimed to figure out the environmental factors determining the occurrence of pulmonary TB in Surabaya City.

Objectives: the purpose of the current study was to figure out the environmental factor determining the incidents of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in Surabaya City

Methods : This was observational research carried out by a cross-sectional approach. People with pulmonary TB registered for treatment at the Perak Timur Community Health Center and Jagir Community Health Center in Surabaya City were recruited as the research population. Meanwhile, the research samples were patients with pulmonary TB in both Community Health Centers. Simple random sampling was utilized to collect 130 patients as respondents. The data obtained were then analyzed using univariate and bivariate logistic regression.

Results: The bivariate statistical test on the four research variables showed that residential density had OR=0.671, house ventilation had OR=2.874, room humidity had OR=1.231, and house lighting had OR=1.170. Fourth, environmental factors are not the cause of TB disease, because the results of statistical tests show that the OR value is above 0.5

Conclusions: It can be concluded that residential density, lighting, and house ventilation did not influence the occurrence of pulmonary tuberculosis. It was more likely that it was caused by factors which do not come from the living environment. Suggestions for future research need to be an air swab examination around the residence of TB patients


determinants; environmental factors; pulmonary tuberculosis; ventilation; residential density


Carroll JS, Pfeiffer Y, Nowak H, Friis S. The variety of beliefs about the causes of safety among safety practitioners. Saf Sci [Internet]. 2022;148(April 2021):105641. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2021.105641

Taylor BM, Ash M, King LP. Initially High Correlation between Air Pollution and COVID-19 Mortality Declined to Zero as the Pandemic Progressed: There Is No Evidence for a Causal Link between Air Pollution and COVID-19 Vulnerability. Vol. 19, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022.

Dodd W, Brubacher LJ, Kipp A, Wyngaarden S, Haldane V, Ferrolino H, et al. Navigating fear and care: The lived experiences of community-based health actors in the Philippines during the COVID-19 pandemic. Social Science Medicine [Internet]. 2022;308(July):115222. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2022.115222

Setiyowati E, Hanik U, Juliasih NN, Wahdi A. Self-Management Education for the Quality of Life of Patients with Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Journal for Quality in Public Health. 2020;4(1):10–9.

Tesema T, Seyoum D, Ejeta E, Tsegaye R. Determinants of tuberculosis treatment outcome under directly observed treatment short courses in Adama City, Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2020;15(4):1–12.

Ou Q, Pei C, Chan Kim S, Abell E, Pui DYH. Evaluation of decontamination methods for commercial and alternative respirator and mask materials – view from filtration aspect. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2020;150(May).

Tan C, Kallon II, Colvin CJ, Grant AD. Barriers and facilitators of tuberculosis infection prevention and control in low- And middle-income countries from the perspective of healthcare workers: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2020;15(10 October):1–18.

Robert Kakaire, Noah Kiwanuke, Sarah Zalwango, Juliet N.Sekandi, Trang Ho Thu Quach, Maria Eugenia Castellanos, Frederick Quinn and CCW. Excess Risk of Tuberculosis Infection Among Extra-household Contacts of Tuberculosis Cases in an African City. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2021;73:3438–45.

Oladimeji O, Oladimeji KE, Nanjoh M, Banda L, Adeleke OA, Apalata T, et al. Contributory Factors to Successful Tuberculosis Treatment in Southwest Nigeria:A Cross-Sectional Study. Vol. 7, Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2022. p. 194.

Mirahmadizadeh A, Rezaei F, Jokari K, Moftakhar L, Hemmati A, Dehghani SS, et al. Correlation between environmental factors and COVID-19 indices: a global level ecological study. Vol. 29, Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2022. p. 16667–77.

Mirahmadizadeh A, Ghelichi-Ghojogh M, Vali M, Jokari K, Ghaem H, Hemmati A, et al. Correlation between human development index and its components with COVID-19 indices: a global level ecologic study. Vol. 22, BMC Public Health. 2022.

Hsu KJ, Carl E, Divita A, Feldman T, Alban A, Freihart B, et al. Rising to the Occasion of This COVID-19-Impacted Nation: Development, Implementation, and Feasibility of the Brief Assessment-Informed Skills Intervention for COVID-19 (BASIC). Cognitive and Behavioral Practice [Internet]. 2021;19. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpra.2021.02.003

Hansson J, Nordenmark M, Tjulin Å, Landstad BJ, Vinberg S. Socio-Ecological Factors and Well-Being among Self-Employed in Europe during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 2022;

Kim J, Hagen E, Muindi Z, Mbonglou G, Laituri M. An examination of water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) accessibility and opportunity in urban informal settlements during the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from Nairobi, Kenya. Science of the Total Environment [Internet]. 2022;823:153398. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.153398

States M. World Health Organization ( WHO ) Information Note Tuberculosis and COVID-19 COVID-19 : Considerations for tuberculosis ( TB ) care 1 . Are people with TB likely to be at increased risk of COVID-19 infection , illness and death ? 2 . What should health au. World Health Organization. 2020;(April):1–10.

Cantore S, Ballini A. Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ) Pandemic Burst and Its Relevant Consequences in Dental Practice. 2020;111–2.

van Munster EPJ, van der Aa HPA, Verstraten P, Heymans MW, van Nispen RMA. Improved intention, self-efficacy and social influence in the workspace may help low vision service workers to discuss depression and anxiety with visually impaired and blind adults. Vol. 22, BMC Health Services Research. 2022.

Fawzy S, Osman AI, Doran J, Rooney DW. Strategies for mitigation of climate change: a review. Environmental Chemistry Letters [Internet]. 2020;18(6):2069–94. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10311-020-01059-w

Cheung M-C, Yip J, Cheung JPY. Influence of Screen Time during COVID-19 on Health-Related Quality of Life of Early Adolescents. Vol. 19, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2022. p. 10498.

Rojas NM, Abenavoli RM. Bidirectionality in behavioral regulation, emotional competence, and expressive vocabulary skills: Moderation by preschool social-emotional programs. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology [Internet]. 2021;76(August):101316. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2021.101316

Khan F. Water availability and response of Tarbela Reservoir under the changing climate in the Upper Indus Basin, Pakistan. Vol. 12, Scientific reports. 2022. p. 15865.

Fleury MJ, Grenier G, Gentil L, Roberge P. Deployment of the consultation-liaison model in adult and child-adolescent psychiatry and its impact on improving mental health treatment. Vol. 22, BMC Family Practice. 2021.

Antenor Rodrigues, Gerard Munos CASTRO, Cristina Jacome, Daniel Langer SMP and C burtin. Current developments and future directions in respiratory physiotherapy. Cross Mark. 2020;29(200264):1–13.

Xu L, Mohammad SJ, Nawaz N, Samad S, Ahmad N, Comite U. The Role of CSR for De-Carbonization of Hospitality Sector through Employees: A Leadership Perspective. Sustain. 2022;14(9):1–18.

Mutonyi BR, Slåtten T, Lien G, González-Piñero M. The impact of organizational culture and leadership climate on organizational attractiveness and innovative behavior: a study of Norwegian hospital employees. BMC Health Services Research [Internet]. 2022;22(1):1–19. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-022-08042-x

Lacopo Baussano, Brian G Willians, Paul nunn, Marta Beggiato, Ugo Gedeli FS. Tuberculosis Incidence in Prisons: A Systematic Review. PLoS Med. 2020;7(12):1–12.

Cuiyan W, Riyu P, Xiaoyang W, Yilin T, Linkang X, Cyrus SH, et al. Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China. Int International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2020;17(5):1–25.

Slåtten T, Lien G, Mutonyi BR. Promoting organizational vision integration among hospital employees. BMC Health Services Research [Internet]. 2022;22(1):1–15. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-021-07430-z

Zang ST, Luan J, Li L, Yu HX, Wu QJ, Chang Q, et al. Ambient air pollution and COVID-19 risk: Evidence from 35 observational studies. Vol. 204, Environmental Research. 2022.

World Health Organization. GlobalTuberculosis Report. In: Global Tuberculosis Report. 2021.

Yu FGu, Emma J Chapman ACB and MIB. Evidence-based management approaches for patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)_ A practice review _ Enhanced Reader.pdf. Journal of Palliative Medicine. 2022;1–13.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/jnki.2023.11(1).%25p


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan Indonesia (JNKI) indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons

  View My Stats