Perceived psychological reactions to second wave of pandemic COVID-19 Among Working Adult Indonesians: An online survey study

Edi Sampurno Ridwan, Sofyan Indrayana, Asep Badrujamaludin, Dedi Supriadi, Nuh Huda, Priyanto Priyanto, Qori Ila Saidah, Aan Sutandi


Background: The Corona Virus Disease (Covid-19) pandemic caused serious health consequences including mental health issues. Thus, gaining insight into the emergence of mental health problems including fear, anxiety and stress in society during the second wave Covid-19 pandemic is imperative. 

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the psychological reactions of working Indonesians living in five metropolitan cities in Java Island and its association with personal characteristics during the second wave Covid-19 pandemic.

Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 916 respondents from five metropolitan cities in the Island of Java that was voluntarily completing the anonymous online survey. The data were administered by using the Indonesian version of Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Covid-19 Anxiety Scale (CAS), and Fear of Covid-19 Scale (FCS). Bivariate and multivariate analysis were performed using non-parametric methods due to non-normal distribution data. Significance for hypothesis testing was set with p-value 0.05 on 95% Confidence Interval. Data was analyzed using software STATA14 of StataCorp.

Results: A total of 916 respondents were included, with the median of age being 28 years old. Perceived fear and anxiety to Covid-19 among working individuals was low (35.92% and 40.94%), yet they were on moderate and high-levels of stress (31.88% and 45.52%) respectively. After adjusted all predictors, age was a significant predictor to the level of fear (p< 0.001), anxiety (p= 0.05), and stress (p< 0.001). The first dose of vaccination significantly predicted a reduction in the fear of Covid-19 (p= 0.045).

Conclusions: Increasing a year of age predicted the reduction of fear, anxiety, and perceived of stress to Covid-19. First dose vaccination significantly reduced the fear to Covid-19. 


fear; anxiety; perceived-stress; psychological reaction; COVID-19

Full Text:



Cucinotta D, Vanelli M. WHO Declares COVID-19 a Pandemic. Acta Biomedica. 2020;91(1):157-60. PMID: 32191675.

Cénat JM, Blais-Rochette C, Kokou-Kpolou CK, Noorishad PG, Mukunzi JN, McIntee SE, et al. Prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological distress among populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research. 2021;295:113599. PMID: 33285346.

Chu IY-H, Alam P, Larson HJ, Lin L. Social consequences of mass quarantine during epidemics: a systematic review with implications for the COVID-19 response. Journal of Travel Medicine. 2020;27(7):taaa192. doi: 10.1093/jtm/taaa192. PMID: 33051660.

Bah AJ, James PB, Bah N, Sesay AB, Sevalie S, Kanu JS. Prevalence of anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder among Ebola survivors in northern Sierra Leone: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2020;20(1):1391. doi: 10.1186/s12889-020-09507-6.

Dubey S, Biswas P, Ghosh R, Chatterjee S, Dubey MJ, Chatterjee S, et al. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. 2020;14(5):779-88. Epub 2020/05/27. doi: 10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.035. PMID: 32526627.

Castaldelli-Maia JM, Marziali ME, Lu Z, Martins SS. Investigating the effect of national government physical distancing measures on depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic through meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine. 2021;51(6):881-93. PMID: 33648613.

Necho M, Tsehay M, Birkie M, Biset G, Tadesse E. Prevalence of anxiety, depression, and psychological distress among the general population during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 2021:207640211003121. Epub 2021/04/03. doi: 10.1177/00207640211003121. PMID: 33794717.

Wu T, Jia X, Shi H, Niu J, Yin X, Xie J, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2021;281:91-8. Epub 2020/12/15. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.11.117. PMID: 33310451; Central PMCID: PMCPMC7710473.

Banerjee D, Vaishnav M, Rao TS, Raju M, Dalal PK, Javed A, et al. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on psychosocial health and well-being in South-Asian (World Psychiatric Association zone 16) countries: A systematic and advocacy review from the Indian Psychiatric Society. Indian Journal of Psychiatry. 2020;62(Suppl 3):S343-s53. Epub 2020/11/24. doi: 10.4103/psychiatry.IndianJPsychiatry_1002_20. PMID: 33227049; Central PMCID: PMCPMC7659771.

Satgas-Covid19. Protokol Tatalaksana COVID-19 di Indonesia 2020 [cited 2021 22 Mei]. Available from: [diakses Mei 2021].

Triwardani R. Indonesian officials and media fight vaccine hesitancy, misinformation. Asian Politics & Policy. 2021;n/a(n/a). doi:

Cohen S, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A Global Measure of Perceived Stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 1983;24(4):385-96. doi: 10.2307/2136404.

Silva WAD, de Sampaio Brito TR, Pereira CR. COVID-19 anxiety scale (CAS): Development and psychometric properties. Current psychology (New Brunswick, NJ). 2020:1-10. doi: 10.1007/s12144-020-01195-0. PMID: 33204058.

Ahorsu DK, Lin C-Y, Imani V, Saffari M, Griffiths MD, Pakpour AH. The Fear of COVID-19 Scale: Development and Initial Validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. 2020:1-9. doi: 10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8. PMID: 32226353.

15. Xiong J, Lipsitz O, Nasri F, Lui LMW, Gill H, Phan L, et al. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2020;277:55-64. Epub 2020/08/18. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2020.08.001. PMID: 32799105; Central PMCID: PMCPMC7413844.

Luo F, Ghanei Gheshlagh R, Dalvand S, Saedmoucheshi S, Li Q. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Fear of COVID-19. Frontiers in Psychology. 2021;12:661078. Epub 2021/06/29. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2021.661078. PMID: 34177712; Central PMCID: PMCPMC8231929.

Plomecka M, Gobbi S, Neckels R, Radzinski P, Skorko B, Lazzeri S, et al. Factors Associated With Psychological Disturbances During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Multicountry Online Study. JMIR Mental Health. 2021;8(8):e28736. Epub 2021/07/14. doi: 10.2196/28736. PMID: 34254939; Central PMCID: PMCPMC8396308.

Chawla N, Tom A, Sen MS, Sagar R. Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine. 2021;43(4):294-9. doi: 10.1177/02537176211021789.

Chai J, Xu H, An N, Zhang P, Liu F, He S, et al. The Prevalence of Mental Problems for Chinese Children and Adolescents During COVID-19 in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Frontiers of Pediatric. 2021;9:661796. PMID: 34692601.

Ma L, Mazidi M, Li K, Li Y, Chen S, Kirwan R, et al. Prevalence of mental health problems among children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Affective Disorder. 2021;293:78-89. Epub 2021/06/27. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2021.06.021. PMID: 34174475.

Guastafierro E, Toppo C, Magnani FG, Romano R, Facchini C, Campioni R, et al. Older Adults' Risk Perception during the COVID-19 Pandemic in Lombardy Region of Italy: A Cross-sectional Survey. Journal of Gerontological Social Work. 2021;64(6):585-98. Epub 2021/01/05. doi: 10.1080/01634372.2020.1870606. PMID: 33393447.

Picaza Gorrochategi M, Eiguren Munitis A, Dosil Santamaria M, Ozamiz Etxebarria N. Stress, Anxiety, and Depression in People Aged Over 60 in the COVID-19 Outbreak in a Sample Collected in Northern Spain. The American Gournal of geriatric Psychiatry : official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. 2020;28(9):993-8. Epub 2020/05/31. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2020.05.022. PMID: 32576424.

Klaiber P, Wen JH, DeLongis A, Sin NL. The Ups and Downs of Daily Life During COVID-19: Age Differences in Affect, Stress, and Positive Events. The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences. 2021;76(2):e30-e7. PMID: 32674138.

Jaber RM, Mafrachi B, Al-Ani A, Shkara M. Awareness and perception of COVID-19 among the general population: A Middle Eastern survey. PLOS ONE. 2021;16(4):e0250461. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0250461.

Rodríguez-Fernández P, González-Santos J, Santamaría-Peláez M, Soto-Cámara R, Sánchez-González E, González-Bernal JJ. Psychological Effects of Home Confinement and Social Distancing Derived from COVID-19 in the General Population-A Systematic Review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2021;18(12). PMID: 34204403.

Jiménez-Etxebarria E, Bernaras Iturrioz E, Jaureguizar J. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic as perceived by Older People in Northern Spain. Psychological Research and Behavior Management. 2021;14:1789-803. PMID: 34754249.

Shi L, Lu ZA, Que JY, Huang XL, Liu L, Ran MS, et al. Prevalence of and Risk Factors Associated With Mental Health Symptoms Among the General Population in China During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic. JAMA Network Open. 2020;3(7):e2014053. PMID: 32609353.

Yahaghi R, Ahmadizade S, Fotuhi R, Taherkhani E, Ranjbaran M, Buchali Z, et al. Fear of COVID-19 and Perceived COVID-19 Infectability Supplement Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Iranians’ Intention to Get COVID-19 Vaccinated. Vaccines. 2021;9(7). doi: 10.3390/vaccines9070684.

Maddux JE, Rogers RW. Protection motivation and self-efficacy: A revised theory of fear appeals and attitude change. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 1983;19(5):469-79. doi:

Sadarangani M, Marchant A, Kollmann TR. Immunological mechanisms of vaccine-induced protection against COVID-19 in humans. Nature Reviews Immunology. 2021;21(8):475-84. doi: 10.1038/s41577-021-00578-z.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan Indonesia (JNKI) indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons

  View My Stats