Relationship of comorbid factors diabetes mellitus with oxygen saturation (SaO2) among people with Covid-19 in the Quarantine House

M. Hanif Prasetya Adhi, Endiyono Endiyono


Background: The Covid-19 has infected a hundred people countries, in Indonesia at 8.9%, this figure is the highest in Southeast Asia. The phenomenon, shows that nursing volunteers who work in quarantine place for Covid-19 patients not maintenance to screen of SaO2 value of Covid-19 patients, even though the impact of happy hypoxia on mortality will be high if the oxygen saturation value is below the normal value. Comorbid factors, Diabetes Mellitus can worsen the physical condition and clinical assessment thereby increasing mortality.

Objectives: The purpose of research to determine the relationship between age, gender, and comorbid factors with the value of oxygen saturation (SaO2) in Covid-19 patients at the Baturaden Quarantine Place.

Methods: This study is a quantitative study using an analytical observational method with a crossectional approach. The sample in this study used random sampling of 93 respondents with the Fisher Exact test.

Results: The results of this study, fisher exact test obtained with a p-value = 0.007, there is a relationship between the respondent's comorbidity factor and SaO2 in patients with confirmed COVID-19. Respondents with 95-100% SaO2 who have comorbid factors as many as 20 respondents (21.5%) are fewer than respondents who do not have comorbid factors as many as 29 respondents (30.5%). Blood glucose levels can increase viral replication and suppress the antiviral immune response. This causes DM patients to be more likely to be malnourished and susceptible to cytokine storms that cause a rapid deterioration of clinical conditions compared to non-diabetic patients.

Conclusions: The comorbid factors will increase mortality of COVID-19 patients due to risk factors, comorbid of diabetes mellitus factors, with COVID-19 associated with advanced age, obesity, chronic systemic inflammation, increased coagulation, which can significantly increase blood pressure, indirectly lead to more severe complications due to COVID-19.


comorbidity; sao2; happy hypoxia; covid-19

Full Text:



Levani Y, Prastya AD, Mawaddatunnadila S, Wuhan K, Huebei P. Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( COVID-19 ): Patogenesis , Manifestasi Klinis dan Pilihan Terapi. 2019;2019.

Sun P, Lu X, Xu C, Sun W, Pan B. Understanding of COVID ‐ 19 based on current evidence. 2020;(February):548–51.

Hussain A, Bhowmik B, Cristina N. Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID- 19 . The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect , the company ’ s public news and information website . Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories , such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source . These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active . COVID-19 and diabetes : Knowledge in progress. 2020;(January).

Lu R, Zhao X, Li J, Niu P, Yang B, Wu H, et al. Articles Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus : implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet [Internet]. 2020;395(10224):565–74. Available from:

Dhont S, Derom E, Braeckel E Van, Depuydt P, Lambrecht BN. The pathophysiology of ‘ happy ’ hypoxemia in COVID-19. Respiratory Research, vol. 21, no. 1, 2020, p. 198

Jiao Y, Gao S, Wu L, Song A. Continuity of care for quality of life and clinical outcomes in patients with peritoneal dialysis. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, 2017;10(12):16586–94.

Shianata CM, Engka JNA, Pangemanan DHC. Happy Hypoxia Pada Coronavirus Disease. Jurnal Biomedik, 2021;13(28):58–66. Available from:

William E, Hamonangan B. Pandemi COVID-19 dalam Perspektif Demografi Sosial ( Komorbiditas ) Dinamika Mortalitas Dalam Kejadian Luar Biasa : Studi Kasus Pandemi Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( Covid-19 ). Research Gate: Covid dan Sosiologi. 2020;(March). Available from:

Acharya D, Lee K, Lee DS, Lee YS, Moon S. Mortality Rate and Predictors of Mortality in Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients with Diabetes. Healthcare (Basel). 2020 Sep 13;8(3):338. doi: 10.3390/healthcare8030338.

Letko M, Marzi A, Munster V. Functional assessment of cell entry and receptor usage for SARS-CoV-2 and other lineage B betacoronaviruses. Nature Public Health Emergency Collection. 2020 Apr;5(4):562-569. doi: 10.1038/s41564-020-0688-y.

Tignanelli CJ, Ingraham NE, Sparks MA, Reilkoff R, Bezdicek T, Benson B, et al. Correspondence Antihypertensive drugs. Lancet Respir [Internet]. 2020;2600(20):2019–20. Available from:

Erener S. Diabetes , Infection Risk And Covid-19. Mol Metab [Internet]. 2020;101044. Available from:

Wulandari A, Rahman F, Pujianti N, Sari AR, Laily N, et al. Hubungan Karakteristik Individu dengan Pengetahuan tentang Pencegahan Coronavirus Disease 2019 pada Masyarakat di Kalimantan Selatan Jurnal Kesehatan Masyarakat Indonesia 15(1):42 Available from:

Kulcsar KA, Beck SE, Frieman MB, Kulcsar KA, Coleman CM, Beck SE, et al. Comorbid diabetes results in immune dysregulation and enhanced disease severity following MERS-CoV infection Comorbid diabetes results in immune dysregulation and enhanced disease severity following MERS-CoV infection. 2019;4(20).

Chen C, Xiao H, Shi Y, Bian X. 三例遗体 多部位穿刺组织病理学研究. Chinese Journal of Pathology. 2020 (April),49 (05): 411-417. Available from:

Fanshan M, Lin Z, Wenqing L, Chunlei L, Yongqiang L, Naiyi L. Functions of standard CPR training on performance qualities of medical volunteers for Mt . Taishan International Mounting Festival. 2013;13(Suppl 1):1–5.

Gasparini M, Khan S, Patel JM, Parekh D, Bangash MN, Shah A, et al. Renal impairment and its impact on clinical outcomes in patients who are critically ill with COVID-19 : a multicentre observational study. Anaesthesia. 2021 Mar;76(3):320-326. doi: 10.1111/anae.15293..

Fuso L, Pitocco D. Diabetic lung , an underrated complication from restrictive functional pattern to pulmonary hypertension. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2019 Sep;35(6):e3159. doi: 10.1002/dmrr.3159

Du RH, Liang LR, Yang CQ, Wang W, Cao TZ, Li M, Guo GY, Du J, Zheng CL, Zhu Q, Hu M, Li XY, Peng P, Shi HZ. Predictors of mortality for patients with COVID-19 pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2: a prospective cohort study. Europe Respiratory Journal. 2020 May 7;55(5):2000524. doi: 10.1183/13993003.00524-2020

Mpotos N, Monsieurs KG, Idrissi SH. Effect of rescuer’s sex on the quality of chest compression during cardiopulmonary resuscitation on manikins. European Journal of Emergency Medicine 22(1):69. Available from:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Jurnal Ners dan Kebidanan Indonesia (JNKI) indexed by:


Lisensi Creative Commons

  View My Stats