Penurunan total polifenol, etanol, asam laktat, asam asetat, dan asam amino selama fermentasi biji kakao asalan dengan penambahan inokulum

Mulono Apriyanto, Rujiah Rujiah

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Background: Farmers mostly produced dry beans without fermentation. Attempts to get dry cocoa beans that have a typical cocoa flavor precursors can be done if there is still a substrate which can be fermented by microbes involved in the fermentation of fresh cocoa beans with the appropriate process conditions.

Objectives: To evaluate the effect of variety of techniques fermentation of cocoa beans randomly to quality parameters of fermented cocoa beans, and evaluate the precursors of flavor and volatile compounds produced after roasting.

Methods: Stages of the research were as follows: fermentation technique was done 3 variations of fermentation technique that were the first, treatment without the addition of inoculum (control), second, treatment with inoculum of S. cerevisiae (FNCC 3056), L. lactis (FNC 0086) and A. aceti (FNCC 0016), about 10cfu / g of microbes at the beginning of fermentation (IA). Third, yeast inoculum at the start of fermentation, lactic acid bacteria on the hour of 24 and acetic acid bacteria at 48 hours, with the same mount of microbial population with the second treatment (IB). Fermentation was conducted during 120 hours. Temperature was adjusted during fermentation, that were 35° C the first (24 hours), 45° C (the second 24 hours), 55° C (the third 24 hours) and 35° C (the fourth 24 hours). At the end of stage, fermented cocoa beans were roasted and analyzed for its volatile compound.

Results: The results showed that total plyphenols decrease in all treatments during fermentation. It have been to produce hydrophobic amino acids, that were: alanine, tyrosine, valine, phenilalanin, isoleucine and methionin as precursors of flavor with a total of hydrophobic amino acids were owned all treatment.

Conclusions: Parameter testing, like aroma precursors and volatile compounds in the treatment shown the highest increase gradually inoculum.

 

KEYWORDS: cocoa beans, fermentation, inoculum, poliphenol, and amino acid


ABSTRAK

 

Latar belakang: Biji kakao kering ditingkat petani sebagian besar dihasilkan tanpa fermentasi tidak menghasilkan prekursor flavour khas kakao. Upaya untuk mendapatkan biji kakao kering yang memiliki prekursor flavour khas kakao dapat dilakukan apabila terdapat subtrat yang dapat difermentasi oleh mikrobia yang terlibat dalam fermentasi biji kakao segar dengan kondisi proses yang sesuai

Tujuan: Mengetahui pengaruh variasi teknik fermentasi biji kakao asalan terhadap parameter mutu biji kakao asalan hasil fermentasi, dan mengevaluasi prekursor flavour dan senyawa volatil yang dihasilkan biji kakao hasil fermentasi pasca sangrai.

Metode: Tahapan penelitian yang dilakukan adalah 3 variasi teknik fermentasi yaitu pertama perlakuan tanpa penambahan inokulum (kontrol), kedua menggunakan inokulum S. cerevisiae (FNCC 3056), L. lactis (FNC 0086) dan A. aceti (FNCC 0016), masing-masing sekitar 108 cfu/g diberikan serentak di awal fermentasi (IA). Ketiga, pemberian inokulum secara bertahap yeast di awal fermentasi, bakteri asam laktat pada jam ke-24, dan bakteri asam asetat pada jam ke 48 dengan populasi mikrobia sama dengan perlakuan kedua (IB). Fermentasi dilaksanakan selama 120 jam. Suhu diatur selama fermentasi, berturut-turut 35oC (24 jam pertama), 45oC (24 jam kedua), 55oC (24 jam ketiga) dan 35oC  (48 jam terakhir), Tahap ketiga, biji kakao hasil fermentasi dari tiga perlakuan tersebut disangrai dan dianalisis senyawa volatilnya.

Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa selama fermentasi biji kakao asalan menunjukan total polifenol turun pada ketiga perlakuan. Biji kakao asalan pasca fermentasi menghasilkan asam amino hidrofobik yaitu alanin, tirosin, valin, phenilalanin, isoleusin dan methionin sebagai prekursor flavor dengan total asam amino hidrofobik dimiliki oleh perlakuan penambahan inokulum secara serentak.

Kesimpulan: Rehidrasi pulp biji kakao asalan dapat memperbaiki komposisi pulp sebagai subtrat fermentasi. Parameter pengujian, prekursor aroma dan senyawa volatil tertinggi ditunjukkan pada perlakuan penambahan inokulum secara bertahap.

 

KATA KUNCI: biji kakao asalan, fermentasi, inokulum, polifenol dan asam amino hidrofobik.



Keywords


cocoa beans; fermentation; inoculum; poliphenol; amino acid; biji kakao asalan; fermentasi; inokulum;polifenol; asam amino hidrofobik

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2017.5(1).1-8

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