Keberhasilan ibu bekerja memberikan ASI eksklusif

Intan Agustina Anggraeni, Detty Siti Nurdiati, Retna Siwi Padmawati

Abstract


ABSTRACT

Background: Indonesia faces double burden of nutritional problems, namely undernutrition and overnutrition. Exclusive breastfeeding may prevent infants from these kind of malnutritions. Working mothers are difficult to give exclusive breastfeeding due to some constraints and poor lactation management.

Objectives: To explore the experience of working mothers who succeeded in providing exclusive breastfeeding.

Methods: This was qualitative study using phenomenology design. It was conducted at Subdistrict of Sedayu, District of Bantul. Subjects were 13 mothers who purposively selected, work and have been successful provided exclusive breastfeeding, had children aged 6-24 months. Data were obtained through
in-depth interview to the respondents and observation of lactation facilities at the working place. Data triangualation was performed through interview with husbands, baby sitters, colleagues and chairman of mother’s workplace.

Results: Exploration of several information were studied, including intention to give exclusive breastfeeding, positive attitudes toward exclusive breastfeeding, perceived norms from social references, good self efficacy, cultural aspect of breastfeeding, skills of lactation management, and environmental constraint
experienced by mother. Intention of mothers during pregnancy was associated with behavior in providing exclusive breastfeeding. Intention to give exclusive breastfeeding was infl uenced by positive attitude andself-efficacy. There was difference in self-efficacy that influenced intention of mothers working in formal and informal sectors. Working mothers at formal and informal sectors differed in managing lactation. Despite some constraints and limited facilities mothers kept trying to provide exclusive breastfeeding.

Conclusions: Working mothers have a specific strategy to succeed in providing exclusive breastfeeding.Education, facilities, and breastfeeding policies in workplace should be given to working mothers.

KEYWORDS: exclusive breastfeeding, intention, lactation management, working mothers

ABSTRAK

Latar belakang: Indonesia menghadapi beban ganda masalah gizi, yakni gizi kurang dan gizi lebih. Salah satu cara untuk mencegah masalah gizi pada bayi adalah dengan memberikan ASI eksklusif. Ibu yang bekerja sulit untuk memberikan ASI eksklusif karena kendala yang tidak dapat diatasi dan manajemen laktasi yang buruk.

Tujuan: Untuk mengeksplorasi pengalaman ibu bekerja di sektor formal dan informal yang sukses memberikan ASI eksklusif.

Metode: Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif dengan pendekatan fenomenologi. Penelitian dilakukan di Kecamatan Sedayu, Kabupaten Bantul. Subjek diambil secara purposive sebanyak 13 orang. Kriteria inklusi subjek adalah ibu yang bekerja dan berhasil memberikan ASI eksklusif, memiliki anak usia 6-24 bulan dan bersedia menjadi subjek penelitian. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara mendalam dengan responden dan observasi fasilitas laktasi di tempat kerja. Triangulasi data dilakukan dengan mewawancarai suami, pengasuh, rekan kerja, dan pemimpin.

Hasil: Hasil penggalian informasi meliputi intensi ibu dalam memberikan ASI eksklusif, sikap positif terhadap ASI eksklusif, norma yang dipersepsikan dari lingkungan sosial, efikasi diri yang baik, budaya menyusui, keterampilan manajemen laktasi, dan hambatan lingkungan yang dialami oleh ibu. Intensi untuk menyusui eksklusif telah dimiliki oleh ibu sejak hamil. Ibu yang bekerja di sektor formal memiliki perbedaan dalam melakukan manajemen laktasi dibandingkan dengan ibu yang bekerja di sektor informal. Ibu mengalami beberapa hambatan dan keterbatasan, namun ibu tetap berjuang untuk memberikan ASI eksklusif.

Kesimpulan: Ibu bekerja memiliki strategi tertentu untuk mencapai keberhasilan dalam memberikan ASI eksklusif. Pendidikan, penyediaan fasilitas, dan kebijakan menyusui di tempat bekerja perlu diberikan kepada ibu bekerja.

KATA KUNCI: ASI eksklusif, ibu bekerja, intensi, manajemen laktasi


Keywords


exclusive breastfeeding;intention;lactation management;working mothers;ASI eksklusif;ibu bekerja;intensi;manajemen laktasi

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21927/ijnd.2015.3(2).69-76

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